Photoperiod and Signs of Spring

Spring: the first 20 days!

Gray skies, cold rain, snow and flooding have slowed down the arrival of spring but photoperiod will rule the day. Increasing day length is a powerful force that insures the necessary progression of life stages, regardless of the weather.

Many aquatic species, including this Great Blue Heron, arrived to find traditional wetland habitats still covered in ice (23March2017).

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Snow geese were reported throughout Central New York during the last week of March. They were refueling on waste grain in corn fields and spread manure before continuing their journey to summer range in the Arctic (27-28March2017).

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Wild turkeys were foraging on waste grain too, but increasing daylight was also triggering the mating urge in males; many were observed in full display posture, strutting for uninterested hens (1April2017).

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Breeding populations of ring-necked pheasants no longer occur in this region, but some are occasionally released into the wild for recreational purposes. This cock pheasant is crowing and flapping his wings in an attempt to attract a hen (6April2017).

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Red-winged blackbirds arrived several weeks ago and are defending their breeding territories aggressively, despite the elements (7April2017).

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A sure sign of Spring is the transformation of male goldfinches as they molt into their bright breeding plumage (7April2017).

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Groundhogs emerged from hibernation in March to find a snow-covered landscape. In the days ahead they faced yet another hardship – the flooding of burrows in marginal habitats. This one seems to have weathered the storms well…but is grazing in the middle of a hay field, a long way from the nearest burrow. Can it outrun an eagle, fox or coyote? Survival is still questionable (8April2017).

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Photos by NB Hunter, March 23 – April 8, 2017. ©All Rights Reserved.

Spring Thaw!

Finally, the ice is melting and the snow receding. The discovery of some familiar faces on a trip to the marsh on April 1 confirmed it: spring is here, and it’s not an April Fool’s prank!

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Great Blue Heron – first sighting in 2014

 

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Red-winged Blackbird on a breeding territory in a cattail marsh

 

 

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Mute Swan at rest on ice

Photos by NB Hunter. © All Rights Reserved.

Winter … or Spring?

It’s spring, but we’re still hunkering down under the influence of bitter cold, wind, snow and ice. However, photoperiod prevails, and the lengthening days have livened things up. Large flocks of noisy “blackbirds” arrived last week, and the male Wild Turkeys are beginning to strut in the presence of hens.

The blackbirds – there are 50 to 100 descending upon my feeders at frequent intervals now – are mixed flocks, comprised mostly of Common Grackles and Red-winged Blackbirds.

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These strutting turkey gobblers, sporting impressive beards and spurs, were part of a flock of 10, most of which were hens.

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Photos by NB Hunter. © All Rights Reserved.

Signs of Spring

Winter is in retreat. The snow is gone from the lower elevations and receding slowly, but surely, from the colder areas at higher elevations and on north-facing slopes. I enjoy following the natural events associated with this transitional time and the advance of spring. Animal behavior is especially fascinating.

The Groundhog (Woodchuck), having lived off fat reserves while hibernating in its burrow for six months at a near-death metabolic rate, is ready for a change of scenery and a good meal. However, some are in for a surprise when they emerge, finding snow-covered fields rather than fresh greens.

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Groundhog on the 27th of March

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Waterfowl, particularly Mallards, dabble in cut corn fields flooded with water from melting snow, finding something to eat between the rows of stubble.

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Hen and drake Mallard feeding in a flooded field

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For months, whitetails have subsisted largely on woody browse such as the twigs of apple, ash, and Red-osier Dogwood. If available, the evergreen foliage of hemlock and Northern White-cedar was also consumed . Having exhausted most of this food supply, in many instances over-browsing it and damaging the plants, they’re searching snow-free fields for a dietary shift that includes emerging weeds and grasses. Hungry deer are feeding throughout the day, just about anywhere that nutritious, herbaceous food is available. Overall, the deer in this locale appear to be in fairly good condition, although some of the young deer, last year’s fawns, look gaunt.

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Small herd of White-tailed Deer feeding in mid-day; late March, after snow melt

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Adult White-tailed Deer feeding in a harvested corn field

Perhaps the most notable harbinger of spring and the changing seasons is the Red-winged Blackbird. They arrive in early to mid-March, usually in noisy winter flocks that are easily seen and heard. One such flock, about 30 birds, arrived here in mid-March. Throughout the day they repeatedly swooped into the feeders, fed briefly, then burst into flight and settled in the large, mature oak and maple trees nearby.

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Part of a small flock of two dozen Red-wings, bursting into flight after feeding

When feeding socially, males on the ground show just the white or yellow edge of their shoulder patches. However, the red shoulder patches typically displayed by males in the breeding season are visible in flight.

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Male Red-wings feeding, with their red shoulder plumage hidden except for the bird in flight

The females are entirely different (sexual dimorphism) – mostly brown with pronounced streaking and a light cream or pale orange throat.

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Female Red-winged Blackbirds

When the snow and stormy weather subsided, the backyard flock dwindled in size. The birds moved on to traditional feeding grounds and to establish breeding territories (they may continue to feed in flocks during the breeding season). I’ll continue to see a few birds at the feeders, but the more common sighting at this time is that of a territorial male, perched on a cattail stalk or other low vegetation in marshes, fields, roadside ditches and other suitable habitat, doing everything possible to attract females (as many as possible) and defend its breeding territory..

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Male Red-wing perched on a cattail stalk, investigating a marshy wetland and potential breeding territory

When defending territories, the males are conspicuous in color and voice. Their bright red shoulder patches are in full display during the breeding season, serving to establish dominance and attract mates.

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Territorial male Red-wing Blackbird showing the “song spread display” (1 of 3)

 

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A male Red-wing in early May, singing in the brush at the edge of an uncultivated field

All photos by NB Hunter